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Brazil

Brasil

Core analysis conducted in June 2021.

Overall NDC Equity Score

Insufficient

+

Emissions Reductions

Average

The NDC meets basic expectations in emissions reductions but is still not ambitious enough for a sustainable future.

+

Gender Justice

Insufficient

NDC only mentions the significance of engaging with stakeholders in a “gender-responsive manner” without any clear commitments to long-term inclusion or gender-responsive actions.

+

Youth inclusion

Critically Deficient

The NDC has significant gaps in addressing youth inclusion.

Summary

Brazil is a developing country, the largest country in Latin America, and has one of the world’s greatest tropical rainforests–vital areas to the world’s survival. The country faces several challenges regarding poverty eradication, education, public health, employment, housing, infrastructure, energy access, and many other socio-environmental inequalities that intersect with climate goals. The NDC update by Brazil in 2020 is a one-page document with an eight-page explanatory annex. The document has two goals: the confirmation of the commitment made in 2015 of reducing by 37% the emissions in relation to 2005 levels by 2025 and a 43% reduction in 2030. It brings an “indicative long-term objective” of achieving carbon neutrality by 2060. The updated NDC describes the interaction between government and civil society through the Brazilian Forum on Climate Change for the development of the NDC. However, there is no mention of how much civil society had the opportunity to weigh in or how their perspectives informed the outcomes specifically.

 

On gender mainstreaming, Brazil’s NDC only mentions the significance of engaging with stakeholders in a “gender-responsive manner” without any clear commitments to recognizing the role of women in climate action or gender disaggregated data on the impacts of climate on gender. It failed to include any of the proposals of the Gender Working Group under the Observatório do Clima Climate Observatory, which created a “Civil Society NDC” prior to the update.

 

On youth inclusion, Brazil’s NDC does not mention young people at all. Despite the systemic lack of inclusion, there many youth projects and organizations that are standing up for youth-inclusive climate justice, such as “Elas no Clima” (She on Climate), “Brota no Clima” (Come to the Climate), platforms as “EmpoderaClima” by Care about Climate, “Gênero e Clima” by Brazilian Climate Observatory Network, “EduClima” (Climate Education Program) and “MUVUCA” (Climate Activism Youth Program from NOSSAS), Engajamundo”, “NOSSAS”, and “Clímax Brazil”.

Highlights

  • Includes brief mention and recognition of the participation of women, indigenous peoples, local communities, and civil society as important parts of the planning process.
  • There is reference to a reference to gender and women in the annex of the Brazilian Updated NDC (2020).
  • A committment to implementing its NDC with full respect to human rights, in particular rights of vulnerable communities, indigenous populations, traditional communities, and workers in sectors affected by relevant policies and plans, while promoting gender-responsive measures.
  • Indication to reach carbon-neutrality by 2060.

Lowlights

  • Only one reference to "gender-responsiveness”.
  • Lacks inclusion of intersectionality.
  • Does not provide gender disaggregated data or recognize the vulnerability of women and young people to climate change.
  • Fails to include perspectives and needs of young people.

Key Recommendations

When comparing Brazil with other countries, having a mention of gender in the local NDC can be seen as a success, but the real participation and listening of women’s voices in the decision-making process, construction of climate policies, and solutions for effective mitigation and adaptation for the climate crises don’t exist in the government or the NDC. So, the reference included as “a gender-responsive manner” where women are positioned in the NDC as stakeholders of climate change-related decision-making doesn’t represent the truth.

The real insertion of gender and youth issues in climate governance spaces has happened through the extensive work from civil society and some initiatives of the private sector. It is important not to lose sight of gender issues and intergenerational justice in the climate agendas and to incorporate it into the NDC. The following are key recommendations for the improvement of future NDCs and other national climate plans:


For Gender Justice

  • Enable a real insertion of gender issues in climate governance spaces and increase the number of women in those spaces.
  • Include recommendations from civil society on gender inclusion as prepared by the Civil Society NDC.
  • Prioritize gender issues in the climate agendas and NDC development by increasing gender disaggregated data as a tool to create gender-responsive actions.
  • Highlight gaps in achieving gender equality and climate justice.

For Youth Inclusion

  • Conduct dialogues to gather youth perspectives and needs for climate justice in Brazil.
  • Increase and highlight mention of the importance of youth participation; facilitate, encourage, and support youth inclusion.

Authors

Karina Penha

NDC Ambassador Karina Penha is a Biologist and socio-environmentalist from Maranhão, Brazil. SUSI Alumna in the International Exchange Alumni by the US Department. Mobilizer in NOSSAS Human Rights NGO leading MUVUCA – Climate Activism Program for Amazon Youths. Articulator of Engajamundo Youth NGO where has coordinated the Working Group on Climate Change and four youth delegations in the UN Climate Conferences. Assistant for youth engagement in the Amazon region at “Fé no Clima”, an initiative of the Institute of Religion Studies (ISER) and IRI – Interfaith Rainforest Initiative. Part of the Gender and Climate Working Group from the Brazilian Climate Observatory and of the Core Team for “Bridge Building for Climate Action Program” for climate activists from Latin America and the Caribbean in 2020.

Cintya Feitosa

NDC Mentor Cintya Feitosa is project coordinator for the Climate Policy program at Instituto Clima e Sociedade (iCS) in Brazil. She has a master’s degree in management, specializing in sustainability, from the São Paulo School of Business Administration at the Getúlio Vargas Foundation (FGV EAESP), with research on the adaptation to climate change (2019). She is a specialist in international relations from the University of Brasília (2013), and has a degree in social communication and journalism from the Centro Universitário IESB (2010). She has worked in the planning of coordination and communication actions in political mobilization, research in sustainability and socio-environmental causes since 2010.

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