Core analysis conducted in November 2023.

Overall NDC Equity Score



Emissions Reductions


The NDC meets basic expectations in emissions reductions, but is still not ambitious enough.


Gender Justice


The NDC meets basic expectations in gender equality, but still lacks commitments to sustained long-term inclusion and availability of gender disaggregated data.


Youth Inclusion

Critically Deficient

The NDC has significant gaps in addressing youth inclusion, relying primarily on external civil society led efforts on youth inclusion.


Ecuador is known for its great biodiversity, housing varied ecosystems in its four geographical regions: the Coast, the Andes, The Amazon region and the Galapagos Islands. In addition to their beauty and biodiversity, these regions represent critical carbon reservoirs that require essential protection and stewardship. Ecuador is responsible for only 0.1% of global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The NDC estimates an unconditional emissions reduction potential of 9%, and, subject to international support, a conditional reduction of 20.9% in the Energy, Agriculture, Industrial Processes and Waste sectors by 2025. Further, the NDC also indicated a potential unconditional reduction in emissions from the Land-Use, Land-Use Change and Forestry (LULUCF) sector of 4% and an additional 16% if international support is received. Recognizing the vulnerability of its fragile and important ecosystems, Ecuador’s NDC also includes a robust series of adaptation actions.


Ecuador’s commitment to gender mainstreaming is clearly identified as one of the primary goals of NDC development, which recognizes the importance of mapping, identifying, and collaborating with women as “agents of change”. One of their primary strategies was to engage the National Gender Equity Council in ensuring their approach to gender inclusion was equitable from the start. The NDC also committed to creating and monitoring gender-sensitive indicators, reducing the gender gap in the energy sector, improving understanding of gender-related risks to climate impacts, strengthening institutional capacities through guiding documents and regulations to facilitate risk management with a gender perspective, and ensuring women are included in monitoring, reporting, and evaluation efforts.


On youth inclusion, Ecuador’s NDC only references intergenerational justice one time with respect to the recognition that the country has a responsibility to address intergenerational equity. Though the methodology for public participation is robust, it does not mention young peoples inclusion. Outside of the NDC, Ecuador has taken steps to increase youth inclusion, such as “Operation COP: Youth Ambassadors for Climate Change 2023,” where three Ecuadorian Youth were chosen to represent young people at COP as part of Ecuador’s official delegation, and the Ministry of Environment, Water and Ecological Transition’s  new “school of climate change” initiative. Additionally, many youth organizers have self-organized calls to action for the protection of the climate and the environment, indicating a strong interest in their knowledge and capability to engage in climate-related decision-making efforts.


  • Provides numerous actions to mitigate climate change across sectors, with a focus on the energy transition, climate smart livestock, and forest protection.
  • Has a complementary Implementation Plan, guiding the implementation of mitigation actions and adaptation measures from 2012-2025.
  • Prioritizes gender equity from the start of the NDC development process, including the equal representation of men and women in the NDC development process.
  • Commits to creating gender disaggregated data on climate risks and solutions.
  • Acknowledges gender-diverse people and young people as agents of change.
  • Recognizes a responsibility to intergenerational equity.


  • Excludes clear actions for how the country will increase public transportation access and protect important ecosystems, in partnership with indigenous communities.
  • Lacks any mention of young people as a vulnerable group to climate change or agent of change.
  • It is unclear whether young people participated in the NDC development.
  • Specific actions to close the gender equity gap were not identified.

Key Recommendations

The analysis found a lack of recognition and mechanisms to engage youth as important stakeholders in the development and implementation of its NDC pledges, actions, and efforts to promote the reduction of greenhouse gases, increase resilience, and decrease vulnerability to the cascading impacts of climate change. This not only represents a missed opportunity, but also threatens the

development of policies that are need-based and reflective of local realities. The NDC’s strong efforts to promote gender mainstreaming throughout the NDC design and implementation process from the very beginning could be used as an example for increasing youth-responsive efforts. The following recommendations were made for the improvement of Ecuador’ NDCs and related national climate plans:

For Gender Justice

  • Include specific initiatives on how the country will involve women and people from the LGBTQ+ community in mitigation and adaptation sectors.
  • Provide updates on the collection of data on the vulnerability of women and people from the LGBTQ+ community to climate change.
  • Train women from vulnerable or low-income communities in climate-related initiatives across the energy and forestry sectors.
  • Incorporate specific gender-sensitive indicators of resilience as committed to in the 2021 NDC.

For Youth Inclusion

  • Create roundtables with young people from different careers and school levels to inform the NDC, indicating how perspectives shaped the NDC.
  • Collect data on the vulnerability of young people to climate change and design indicators for reflecting their climate resilience.
  • Create a government organization, supported by the Ministry of the Environment, where young people can be part of the creation of environmental policies.
  • Create training institutes on climate change for school and university students.
  • Incorporate climate change into schools and universities curriculum.
  • Continue the legacy of including young Ecuadorian delegates in participating at climate conferences, such as COP.

NDC Ambassador - Author

Gyuliana Gajardo

NDC Ambassador Gyuliana Gajardo is a 22-year-old Biology student from Ecuador. She is very passionate about marine life and research, which is why she became a diver and is currently studying marine biology in Chile for a semester. This year she had the opportunity to be part of “Operation COP: Ecuador 2023 Young Climate Ambassadors,” a program where she gained experience and knowledge in climate change negotiations. She has volunteered in different environmental programs and recently won third place in the Egis Foundation competition in the nature-based solutions category. She imagines her future as a marine biology scientist whose work helps others understand the effects of climate change on marine ecosystems to take measures and help their conservation.

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