Core analysis conducted in October 2022.

Overall NDC Equity Score



Emissions Reductions


The NDC meets basic expectations in emissions reductions, but it’s still not ambitious enough.


Gender Justice

Critically Deficient

The NDC has significant gaps in addressing gender mainstreaming, potentially not including gender at all.


Youth Inclusion


The NDC makes an effort to acknowledge the role of young people in climate action, but does not provide measures for sustained inclusion in development or implementation.


Egypt faces several environmental and social challenges, including water scarcity, air pollution, and inequality. The country is in a region particularly vulnerable to climate change impacts, such as sea-level rise and desertification. In response, Egypt has prioritized its Nationally Determined Contribution to the national needs of adaptation as the top priority and mitigation as the third priority after adaptation and the means of implementation. Egypt’s Nationally Determined Contribution (NDC) outlines the country’s commitment to reducing greenhouse gas emissions and addressing the impacts of climate change. The NDC sets a target of reducing emissions by 40% below business-as-usual levels by 2030 and outlines a range of mitigation and adaptation measures to achieve this goal, mainly by increasing renewable energy capacity. The NDC also addresses the impacts of climate change on Egypt’s natural resources, such as water and land, and the country’s vulnerable population, particularly those living in coastal areas.


On gender mainstreaming and youth inclusion, Egypt’s NDC is lacking. Although the NDC acknowledges young people and women as vulnerable groups who should play significant roles in climate adaptation planning and implementation, it lacks clear indicators, current actions, and roadmaps for realizing their full participation across all sectors. For example, on youth, the NDC acknowledges the important role that young people play in addressing climate change. It outlines plans to establish a national youth climate platform but does not explain their engagement in designing the NDC or the youth platform. On gender, while the NDC recognizes the need for gender-sensitive approaches to climate action, it lacks sufficient consideration of the gender-specific impacts of climate change and specific actions that will be taken to increase gender-inclusive action.


  • Commits to reducing emissions across sectors, including by 37% in the electricity sector, 65% in the oil and gas sector, and 7% in the transportation sector by 2030 compared to business-as-usual, conditional on external support.
  • Emphasizes the plans to reduce electricity and energy generation from fossil power plants, through scale-up on on-grid renewable energy capacities.
  • Outlines a range of measures to adapt to the impacts of climate change, particularly in sectors that are vulnerable to its effects, including include developing early warning systems and disaster risk reduction plans, promoting sustainable land and water management practices, and enhancing the resilience of infrastructure and communities to climate impacts.
  • Emphasizes on the importance of ensuring that vulnerable populations, such as women and youth, are prioritized in adaptation planning and implementation.
  • Recognizes the need for gender-sensitive approaches to climate action.


  • Does not include an economy-wide emissions reduction target, only focusing on the electricity, transport, and oil and gas sub-sectors.
  • It appears all commitments are conditional on international support.
  • Lacks clear indicators, current actions, and roadmaps for realizing the full participation of young people in the design and implementation of NDCs or the youth climate platform.
  • Only emphasizes the need to recognize gender without any clear commitments, actions, or indicators on how gender-responsive action will occur or be monitored.

Key Recommendations

This analysis found a lack of clear indicators, current actions, and roadmaps for realizing the full participation of youth and gender-diverse community members in Egypt’s NDC. It also lacks sufficient consideration of the gender-specific impacts of climate change. The NDC’s claim that it recognizes the vulnerability of young people and women is not

supported by significant actions to support their roles in climate policymaking and implementation. The following are key recommendations for the improvement of future NDCs and other national climate plans:

For Gender Mainstreaming

  • Conduct gender-sensitive climate change assessments and consultations for the development of the NDC.
  • Set gender-responsive targets and allocate resources for gender and youth-specific climate action.
  • Prioritizing integration of gender perspectives in NDC actions.
  • Outline clear indicators of women contribution in the writing-process of the NDC - not just in consultations.

For Youth Inclusion

  • Recognize young people as beneficiaries of climate interventions and capacity building efforts.
  • Create enabling environment and platforms for their engagement in NDC consultation and implementation processes.
  • Formally establish the proposed national youth climate platform and ensure that youth perspectives as an outcome of the platform's activities are mainstreamed into national climate decision-making processes
  • Leverage existing youth-groups and climate communities to facilitate meaningful engagement of young people in climate decision-making processes.
  • Outline clear indicators of young peoples contribution in the writing-process of the NDC - not just in consultations.

NDC Ambassador - Author

Abdallah Emad Afify

NDC Ambassador is a 27-year-old Egyptian civil engineer with 6 years of experience in climate change advocacy, construction, and digitalization. He is a youth advocate and the founder of LCOY Egypt and ACT.S social enterprise, which raises awareness about climate change and empowers young people. Abdallah is a Global Peace Ambassador and has been recognized for his outstanding contributions to the grassroots community. He has attended multiple UNFCCC sessions and is skilled in leadership and multi-stakeholder processes to mobilize collective action. He holds an advanced degree in Digital Engineering for Sustainable Cities and speaks Arabic, English (C1), and German (B1).

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Embracing Climate Equity to Shape an Equitable and Sustainable World

“2024 must be a year of ambitious emissions reduction and support for people facing the worsening effects of climate change. We need youth-led programs that grow understanding and accountability to build a livable future.”