Core analysis conducted in October 2022.

Overall NDC Equity Score



Emissions Reductions


Even with relatively lower responsibility, the NDC makes a strong effort to create ambitious emissions reduction goals, but lacks impactful emissions reduction policies.


Gender Justice


The NDC makes a strong effort to achieve gender mainstreaming, but excludes the LGBTQ community, doesn’t provide gender inclusive data, and lacks long-term empowerment actions.


Youth Inclusion


The NDC made an effort to acknowledge the disproportionate impacts of climate on young people, but it insufficiently addresses long-term inclusion.


Though Ghana, as a developing country, contributes little to global greenhouse gas emissions, in its updated NDC, the country has set forth very ambitious emissions reduction targets and other national documents that outline policies to cut emissions from all sectors. In its updated NDC, Ghana aims to implement 34 mitigation measures to achieve absolute emission reductions of 15% by 2030 – with international financial support, Ghana could reduce its emissions by up to 45%. This level of reduction would lead to the avoidance of at least 2,900 premature deaths annually from improved air quality, create 1 million decent and green jobs, and benefit 38 million people (mostly youth and women). However, without foreign, private, and philanthropic investment support of US$ 9.3 to 15.5 billion, the 47 total actions outlined will not be achievable.


On gender, women serving or led institutions and groups were involved in the consultations for the NDC, which was also informed by the Ministry of Gender, Children & Social Protection’s climate change and gender-related indictors and programs. Further, the NDC mandated the operationalization of a gender and climate change subcommittee under the National Climate Change Steering Committee and developed specific actions to support women agriculturalists.


On youth, young people participated in consultations and recognized as a vulnerable group. It also outlines the COVID-19 Alleviation and Revitalisation of Enterprises Support (CARES) intended to safeguard decent jobs for young people; however, there is not necessarily a clear connection to green jobs or climate. Though the NDC mentions youth and offers a few policies to ensure their inclusivity and needs, it does not state how the most vulnerable youth living in the most remote and underserved communities will be included in the future.


  • Gender, women, indigenous peoples, and vulnerable groups were involved in the NDC development processes
  • Seeks to institutionalize capacity building on gender and climate change towards NDC planning and implementation
  • Encourages the promotion of livelihood opportunities for women in climate-vulnerable agriculture landscapes and food systems
  • The implementation of the policy actions in the NDCs will cumulatively benefit nearly 38 million people, with the majority being women and youth as well as foster social inclusion and climate justice
  • One of the few NDCs to highlight an intention to strengthen information sharing from the national to community levels and vice versa


  • Does not clearly mention potential loss and damages due to climate impacts
  • Focus on gender and intergenerational justice is mostly focused on the agricultural and forestry sectors
  • Lacks a plan for continued collaboration among women and young people

Key Recommendations

This analysis found that Ghana’s NDC clearly emphasizes the vulnerability of women and young people to the climate crisis as well as their key role in implementing climate solutions. It even includes a gender responsive category within its action table!

The NDC could benefit from increased mapping of women and young peoples’ roles in addressing climate change outside of the agricultural sector, as well as clear indicators for their sustained engagement and capacity-building for creating climate policies. The following are key recommendations for the improvement of future NDCs and other national climate plans:

For Gender Justice

  • Increased mapping and inclusion in consultations of women-led organizations outside of the agricultural sector
  • Provide additional indicators of the role of women in the just transition, including capacity-building to support them in becoming climate policy-makers
  • Highlight the contribution of women in the writing-process of the NDC - not just in consultations

For Youth Inclusion

  • Increase the inclusion of young people in NDC consultations and provide guidelines for their sustained engagement in implementation
  • Provide clear indicators on youth-responsiveness of NDC actions
  • Creation of a legal framework that compels successive governments to stick to the NDC pledges and complete actions that were commenced by previous government leaders
  • Address the nexus of intergenerational justice and access to water, energy and food

NDC Ambassador - Author

Matthew Azure Awini

NDC Ambassador Matthew Azure Awini is a young Climate Change and Environmental Advocate from Ghana. He was the President for Young Reporters for Environment – Ghana (YRE-Ghana) – Knutsford Campus. Additionally he is a volunteer with the Ghana Youth Environmental Movement (GYEM) and a member of the of Youth Climate Council (YCC). He is also a member of the World Youth Parliament for Water (WYPW) research group. Currently, he is a member of the Care About Climate (CAC) NDCs and Communication Teams and works as the Research and Programs Associate at Parliamentary Network Africa (PNAfrica). As an advocate and researcher, Matthew has experience in the Ghanaian climate policies and actions of government towards it achievement. He has a Bachelor Degree in Business Administration (Human Resource Management) at Knutsford University College and other certificates in climate and environment.

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Embracing Climate Equity to Shape an Equitable and Sustainable World

“2024 must be a year of ambitious emissions reduction and support for people facing the worsening effects of climate change. We need youth-led programs that grow understanding and accountability to build a livable future.”