Core analysis conducted in July 2021.

Overall NDC Equity Score

Critically Deficient


Emissions Reductions


The NDC meets basic expectations in emissions reductions but is still not ambitious enough.


Gender Justice

Critically Deficient

The NDC has significant gaps in addressing gender mainstreaming potentially not including gender at all.


Youth Inclusion

Critically Deficient

The NDC has significant gaps in addressing youth inclusion, potentially not addressing young people at all.


India has the world’s second-largest population and is the 7th largest landmass, which includes significant forest cover that acts as an important carbon sink. In part due to its large population, India is responsible for 7% of global emissions per year. India’s updated NDC submitted commits to reducing emissions intensity 45% by 2030, with 2005 level as the baseline. It also aims to install about 50% cumulative electric power capacity from non-fossil fuel-based energy resources by 2030, promotes reforestation efforts to create an additional carbon sink of 2.5 to 3 billion tonnes of CO2 equivalent by 2030, and acknowledges efforts needed to create sustainable lifestyles and cities in the face of climate change. Despite its commitments, the country continues pushing for increased domestic coal production, overshadowing and sowing doubt in its NDC ambitions.


On gender mainstreaming and youth inclusion, India’s NDC lacks any meaningful engagement or recognition.


  • Commits to scaling renewable energy country-wide.
  • Clearly outlines domestic financial commitments for achieving its NDC.
  • Acknowledges actions needed for climate adaptation in the agriculture, water resources, health, and disaster management sectors, the Himalayas, and coastal regions.
  • Supports action on reducing consumption and increasing sustainable lifestyles rooted in traditions, conservation, and modern values.


  • Lack of gender-inclusive policies, commitments, and solutions to place women at the forefront of climate negotiations
  • Lack of a comprehensive and implementation framework for India to achieve its emission reduction plan.
  • Fails to mention the engagement of youth, women, and civil society groups in the development and implementation process of its NDC.
  • When compared to India’s "fair share" contribution, the country's emissions intensity target is highly insufficient.

Key Recommendations

India’s NDC fails to mention young people, women, or gender justice at all levels of the NDC. The lack of inclusive practices in NDC development has likely led to the systemic exclusion of these groups in the NDC overall.

The following are key recommendations for the improvement of future NDCs and other national climate plans:

For Gender Mainstreaming

  • Facilitate enabling environment for the participation of women in NDC development and implementation.
  • Include goals and actions to cement long-term inclusion of women in climate decision-making spaces.
  • Integrate gender disaggregated data to highlight the vulnerability of women to climate impacts, particularly in the agriculture sector.
  • Leverage and engage existing women-led initiatives to facilitate inclusive NDC processes that ensures gender perspective are captured throughout the NDC processes.

For Youth Inclusion

  • Establish consultations with youth-led groups to mainstream youth perspectives into the NDC processes.
  • Formally recognize the contributions of the India Local Conference of Youth to the NDC.
  • Incorporate actions on increasing climate education and green skilling to support young people as part of the Just Transition.
  • Ensure the inclusion of a youth-focused action plan that does not only see youth as beneficiaries of interventions, but also as co-designer of their future.

NDC Ambassador - Author

Deena Mariyam

NDC Ambassador Kanokphan Jongjarb is a gender specialist with more than a decade of research experience working on gender-related projects. Her specific focus is on the gender interface with vulnerability and adaptation to climate change, social protection, and women’s economic empowerment. Kanokphan holds an M.Sc. in Gender and Development Studies from the Asian Institute of Technology (AIT) and an M.Sc. in the Geography of Environmental Risks and Human Security from the United Nations University (UNU-EHS). Currently, Kanokphan supports gender mainstreaming in agricultural development research projects in Africa with the Center for Development Research (ZEF) in Bonn, Germany.

NDC Ambassador - Author

Manav Khanna

Manav Khanna is currently mentoring a country ambassador from India. His Interest in sustainability inspired him to work on climate change issues. He is currently a researcher in Management in Innovation, Sustainability, and Healthcare at Scuola Superiore Sant’Anna, Pisa, Italy. His research area is the relevance of circular economy in climate change mitigation. Before coming to Italy, he worked with the Independent Evaluation Unit (IEU) of the Green Climate Fund (GCF) in South Korea.

See Other Countries’ NDC Equity Scores

View Other Countries

Title of Graphic or Content

This is a social media graphic or content people could use as an advocacy tool for their work. Omnis voluptas assumenda est, omnis dolor repellendus. Temporibus autem quibusdam et aut officiis.

Embracing Climate Equity to Shape an Equitable and Sustainable World

“2024 must be a year of ambitious emissions reduction and support for people facing the worsening effects of climate change. We need youth-led programs that grow understanding and accountability to build a livable future.”