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Indonesia

Core analysis conducted in August 2021. 

Overall NDC Equity Score

Insufficient

+

Emissions Reductions

Aspiring

The NDC makes a strong effort to create ambitious emissions reductions goals, but lacks commitment to reducing emissions.

+

Gender Justice

Critically Deficient

The NDC has significant gaps in addressing gender mainstreaming, potetially not including gender at all.

+

Youth Inclusion

Critically Deficient

The NDC has significant gaps in addressing youth inclusion.

Summary

Indonesia is one of a handful of countries that has updated their Constitution to guarantee decent life and a healthy environment for all citizens. In its NDC, Indonesia commits to reducing emissions by 29% (unconditional) and up to 41% (conditional) by 2030 business. Unfortunately, this commitment is considered critically insufficient towards achieving the Paris Agreement Goals according to the Climate Action Tracker, putting Indonesia’s commitment to reducing emissions at odds with its Constitutional commitment. On a positive note, Indonesia submitted a complementary Long-Term Strategy for Low Carbon and Climate Resilience 2050 (LTS-LCCR 2050) that strengthens Indonesia’s Vision 2045 of reduced emissions within a half-century, while achieving climate resilience and economic development. Indonesia is also one of the first countries to reform fossil fuel subsidies and use this money towards social development in education, health, social assistance and infrastructure, including renewable energy projects and public transports. Though the emissions commitment is insufficient, the LTS-LCCR 2050 acts as a strong basis policy to push for more ambitious emissions reduction commitments, gender mainstreaming and women empowerment, inclusion of adat communities (Masyarakat Hukum Adat), and strengthened leadership of vulnerable communities through NDC implementation and development.

 

On gender mainstreaming, Indonesia has implemented an impressive number of efforts. The country adopted a Gender Mainstreaming in National Development policy that emphasizes gender-responsive budgeting, gender role in accessing water and sanitation. and gender equality in climate adaptation. At the policy implementation level, Indonesia’s National Medium Term Development Plans (RPJMN 2020-2024) provides several gender indicators, including (i) gender mainstreaming index (Indeks Pengarusutamaan Gender/IPG), (ii) gender empowerment index (Indeks Pemberdayaan Gender/IDG), (iii) eradication of all forms of violence to woman, and (iv) family development index (Indeks Pembangunan Keluarga/IPK). Its NDC includes commitments to a gender-responsive just transition, “mapping gender issues in climate change in all development sectors,” and enhancing role of women in development by strengthening women’s capacity and leadership in climate change. Though it fails to include specific data on the current state of gender dynamics in climate change, there are significant commitments to ensure gender is considered at all levels of planning and implementation.

 

On youth inclusion, Indonesia’s NDC leaves significant room for improvement. Intergenerational equity is referred to with respects to public participation processes; however, clear indicators, examples, and commitments to strengthening the consideration of young people in climate decision-making and implementation lack.

Highlights

  • Has an unconditional GHG emissions reduction target of 29% by 2030.
  • Employs a 'One Hundred Years Indonesia’ strategy and integrated landscape approach to mitigation and adaptation.
  • References gender equity as a cross-cutting theme, including in the just transition and climate decision-making spaces.
  • Recognizes the need to map gender and climate issues across all sectors.
  • Acknowledges the significance of intergenerational equity in community-wide participatory practices.

Lowlights

  • Implementation is dependent on international funding.
  • Unambitious targets for fossil fuel phase out and reduction of emissions in the land-use and forestry sector.
  • Minimal engagement with youth and indigenous communities or acknowledgment of their role as climate actors.
  • Exclusion of gender disaggregated data to inform specific actions on advancing women's role and rights in the just transition.

Key Recommendations

This analysis found that there is a clear approach to the consideration and inclusion of women in climate change-related development, however, this more transparency in the gender balance of engagement events and policy planning could strengthen Indonesia’s NDC. Further, there is no mention of supporting young people with only one reference to consider ‘intergenerational needs’ in local planning processes of natural resources.

The NDC’s integrated and holistic landscape approach to its mitigation solutions, clear commitment to gender mainstreaming, and inclusion of the just transition leave much to be celebrated and learned from with respect to increasing inclusion of young people. The following are key recommendations to the national government for the next NDC update:


For Gender:

  • Provide clear actions on how the government will support state and non-state actors collaboration in mainstreaming young feminist terms in all sectors.
  • Hold consultations at the local and national levels that engage women in designing the NDC.
  • Provide evidence of progress on gender mainstreaming from the 2021 NDC.
  • Collect best practices on risk management and sustainable utilization of natural resources, including water, renewable energy, and environmental health, from women..

For Youth:

  • Set more ambitious targets for fossil fuel phase out that reflect the needs of future generations rights to life and a healthy climate per the Constituention.
  • Hold consultations at the local and national levels that engage young people in designing the NDC.
  • Meaningful include and showcase how youth perspectives are represented.

NDC Ambassadors - Authors

Seruni Salsabila, Yulfia Yanuartati and Kautsar Fahreza Tandipanga

NDC Mentor Seruni Salsabila is a highly-motivated undergraduate biology student from the University of Indonesia. Currently, she’s an intern at the United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (UNESCAP) on innovation team division. Passionate in youth climate action, she has participated in several international conferences as a youth representative from Indonesia, such as being group leader of Climate Action and Sustainable Lifestyle at YOUNGA 2021 in leading 250+ youth, one of the contributors in Global Youth Statement prior to COY16 & COP26 on Energy sector, and delegate of Regional Dialogue on Climate Action by UNDP. Focusing on SDG7 and SDG13, she’s an active member in Renewable Energy WG of YOUNGO and was selected as Indonesian youth as well as group leader in ASEAN Young Climate Leaders Program 2022 in order to implement solutions in Indonesia and ASEAN. Prior to that, Seruni was an awardee in the Climate Response category at Bangabandhu Global Youth Leadership Award 2021.

 

NDC Mentor Yulfia Yanuartati is a lecturer, social researcher, and rural community development activist at the University of Mataram (UNRAM) Indonesia. She holds a Master of Rural Systems Management from the University of Queensland Australia and a Ph.D. in Rural Development from Massey Uni, New Zealand. Currently, she serves as a member of the UNRAM consortium for the Alas Strait Alliance Project collaborative with FAO and GCF and is a Gender Specialist for climate budgeting for UNDP Indonesia. Previously, she served as a gender specialist in the Climate Change Adaptation Project (CCAP) collaboration between UNRAM and CSIRO Australia.

 

NDC Mentor Kautsar Fahreza Tandipanga is a socio-economic analyst who works around the nexus of agricultural development, food security, and climate risk. He started his career with Climate Change Adaptation and Resilience (APIK), a USAID-funded project in Indonesia, and now working with the United Nations World Food Programme (WFP) Indonesia Country Office as a Vulnerability Analysis and Mapping (VAM) Associate. Kautsar co-founded the Indonesian Climate Change Initiative (ICCI) Gadjah Mada University (UGM), a student community-based in UGM, the university where he graduated from. He is also a member of YOUNGO – Youth and Children Constituency of UNFCCC – Agriculture Working Group Network.

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