Jamhuri ya Kenya

Core analysis conducted in October 2022.

Overall NDC Equity Score



Emissions Reductions


The NDC meets basic expectations in emissions reductions, but is still not ambitious enough.


Gender Justice


The NDC made an effort to acknowledge the disproportionate impacts of climate on women and gender, but it insufficiently adresses long-term solutions or inclusion.


Youth Inclusion

Critically Deficient

The NDC has significant gaps in addressing youth inclusion, potentially not addressing young people at all.


Climate change presents a major threat to Kenya’s sustainable development and the realization of the nation’s Vision 2030, which seeks to create a competitive and  prosperous nation with a high quality of life. Kenya, like its neighbouring countries in East Africa, is feeling the reality of climate change with increasingly unpredictable and frequent climate-related disasters. As a country whose economy is dependent on climate-sensitive natural resources, challenges from an unpredictable climate can increase vulnerability and have the potential to reverse development gains and further entrench inequalities.


Kenya’s updated NDC commits to abate GHG emissions by 32% by 2030 relative to the BAU scenario of 143 MtCO2eq. This NDC gives a new focus on committing to mobilize resources locally to meet 13% of the estimated implementation, requiring $62 Billion in international support to achieve the remaining 87%. The inclusion of local finance is a significant step forward from its original NDC that stated a 100% reliance on international finance.


Youth inclusion in Kenya’s NDC is limited to acknowledgement of vulnerability, even though young people been vibrant and active in organizing campaigns and raising public awareness on climate change, while generally involved in taking part in activities aimed at combating climate change and its effects countrywide.


In Kenya, public entities are required to undertake public awareness and consultations that ensure gender mainstreaming, in line with the Constitution and the Climate Change Bill (2014). As such, on gender mainstreaming, Kenya has made significant strides. For example, policy and legal frameworks have been enacted to support gender equality and non-discrimination including in the Climate Policy and Climate Change Act (2016), National Climate Change Action Plan (2018-2022), and the Ministry of Environment and Forestry’s Technical Working Group (TWG) which facilitated gender analyses on the agriculture, water, and energy sectors to inform recommendations for strengthening NDC actions, including the development of gender-responsive indicators for tracking NDC implementation in the National MRV system. This facilitated an increase in collaboration and coordination between gender focal points of ministries and increased participation of the National Gender and Equality Commission. Additionally, Kenya’s National Adaptation Plan has a focus on “Gender, Vulnerable Groups, and Youth,” outlining the government’s commitment to achieving gender equity in all aspects of society and in addressing climate change.


  • Commits to mobilize local resources to meet 13% of the estimated implementation budget of USD 62 Billion.
  • Acknowledges the vulnerability of women and young people to climate impacts.
  • Indicates collection, analysis, and use of gender disaggregated data and recommendations by sector.
  • Includes the important role of women as decision-makers.
  • Clear commitment to achieving gender and youth equity in adaptation planning.


  • Lacks a clear and uniform strategy for disseminating information on climate change to the general public.
  • Fails to highlight gender and youth inclusion in the NDC development processes.
  • Measures to secure long-term youth inclusion in climate action is undefined.
  • Excludes clear actions for increasing local resource mobilization to implement mitigation and adaptation actionos.

Key Recommendations

Kenya’s NDC analysis illustrated a clear commitment to strengthening gender mainstreaming in climate action and adaptation efforts. It’s provides encouraging connections to gender-related policies and clearly defined process for including women in designing solutions to climate impacts. Kenya could learn from its efforts to engage women in a fair and meaningful way to increase its youth inclusion.

Kenya’s NDC has laid the groundwork for enhancing its ability to meet its commitments under the Paris Agreement as well as facilitate low-carbon, climate resilient, and gender-inclusive economic growth and development. The following are key recommendations for the improvement of future NDCs and other national climate plans:

For Gender Mainstreaming

  • Develop clear guidelines on mainstreaming gender considerations across climate change sectors, supported with tangible targets and indicators for training and capacity building on gender mainstreaming and climate change.
  • Facilitate the establishment of a Gender and Climate Change Coordination Platform to coordinate and promote gender-responsive climate action.
  • The National Gender and Equality Commission should develop comprehensive gender and climate reporting guidelines for use by state and non-state actors.
  • Annual gender reports should be informed by sector with comprehensive and specific sex-disaggregated data.
  • Collaboration with women's organizations to strengthen gender-responsiveness in the next NDC will be critical.

For Youth Inclusion

  • Facilitate the effective and meaningful consultation of young people in developing the NDC.
  • Creation of annual reports on climate with comprehensive and specific age-disaggregated data.
  • Creation of a legal framework to enhance youth mandated participation climate action and adaptation measures.
  • Develop clear guidelines on mainstreaming of youth considerations into climate change sectors, supported with tangible targets and indicators, including training and capacity building climate change for young people.

NDC Ambassador - Author

Pauline Owiti

NDC Ambassador and professional agronomist Pauline Owiti specializes in community development. She is the founder of a community-based project that trains the locals in organic farming and reforestation techniques that are sustainable. She has a long history of championing ocean conservation and efforts to combat climate change at both the national and international levels. She served as the national coordinator for the United Nations Conference of Young, organized events at Mock COP26, and is currently a part of the Stockholm +50 youth task group for UNEP MGCY. She is passionate about ocean conservation. She was Parvati Foundation’s Project Lead for Kenya on a campaign to designate the Arctic Ocean as a Marine Protected Area, served on the World Economic Forum’s Friends of Ocean Action Ocean Health Youth Council in 2021, and is currently a Youth Policy Advisor at the Sustainable Ocean Alliance. She has In 2021, she was named a Young Friend of the Planet. Her main goals are to create a sustainable, healthy world and an environment in which young people’s opinions are considered during decision-making as part of participation and democracy.

NDC Ambassador - Author

Zipporah Njenga

NDC Ambassador Zipporah Njenga is the Focal Point Sub-Saharan Africa – Children and Youth Constituency for Sustainable Cities (CYCSC).

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