Core analysis conducted in November 2023.

Overall NDC Equity Score

Critically Deficient


Emissions Reductions


The NDC’s emission reduction goal lacks ambition, however, the country provides pathways to lower emissions.


Gender Justice

Critically Deficient

The NDC has significant gaps in addressing gender mainstreaming, potentially not including gender at all.


Youth Inclusion

Critically Deficient

The NDC has significant gaps in addressing youth inclusion, potentially not addressing young people at all.


According to the Ministry of Environment and Tourism, in 2021, the average temperature rise in Mongolia was 2.25 degrees, twice as high as the global average temperature rise, and precipitation decreased by 7.3% compared to the previous year. In that same year, there were 118 hazardous events, such as floods, fires, and other dangerous occurrences, related to climate change, with 11 of them being disastrous cases. Though incredibly vulnerable to climate change, Mongolia possesses an immense potential for grassland soil carbon sequestration, a critical aspect of global carbon management. Unfortunately, in recent years, Mongolia has seen a significant increase in its livestock population, reaching 75 million in 2022, leading to land use degradation and signaling a critical responsibility for the country to improve the overall health of its soil as part of its climate commitments. In addition to various adaptation actions, Mongolia has set forth an ambitious target to achieve a 22.7% reduction in total greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by 2023 compared 2010 levels.


On gender justice and youth inclusion, the terms ‘gender,’ ‘women,’ and ‘youth’ are not mentioned a single time in the NDC. Although there are several policy documents and initiatives aimed at promoting gender equality, such as the Mongolia Sustainable Development Vision 2030 and the Law on Ensuring Gender Equality, it’s clear that gender equality remains a significant challenge in Mongolia. For example, a research study from GIZ Mongolia revealed that women occupy only 17.6 percent of leadership positions in divisions and units at the Ulaanbaatar city governor’s office, falling short of the quota. Addressing these disparities and further advancing gender equality remains a critical priority in Mongolia’s ongoing efforts to promote social and climate justice. When it comes to youth inclusion, there are no policies or supporting mechanisms identified in national policy.


  • Emphasizes the critical need to reduce livestock numbers
  • Stresses the importance of adaptation efforts, including the identification of clear targets
  • Acknowledges intention to identify social groups vulnerable to climate change and build their resilience to overcome the risks


  • Absence of a clear pathway for a just transition away from coal, which is presently heavily subsidized by the government and largely utilized in stove-top cooking, towards renewable energies
  • Only mentions "to limit coal use" rather than eliminate it altogether
  • Zero mention of gender mainstreaming or youth inclusion
  • Absence of gender disaggregated data
  • Mitigation and adaptation actions lack clearly defined steps for implementation
  • Does not indicate any inclusion of civil society participation in the development process

Key Recommendations

This analysis found that there is no emphasis on the importance of youth or gender responsiveness in the NDC. Despite having existing calls to action and targets for gender mainstreaming, integrating gender perspectives does not appear to be a top priority within the NDC.

The following are key recommendations for the improvement of future NDCs and other national climate plans:

For Gender Justice

  • Align gender responsive policies with the goals, targets, and actions identified within the NDC
  • Set specific and measurable goals that explicitly address gender equality and climate justice
  • Develop specific support programs and objectives to increase the inclusion of women in climate-related decision-making spaces at the highest levels

For Youth Inclusion

  • Incorporate key metrics for young people's participation in NDC development and implementation
  • Organize capacity-building opportunities for young people to become strong contributors to climate change activities
  • Recognize youth-led climate champions in Mongolia and invite them to support enhancing youth inclusion efforts

NDC Ambassador - Author

Bat-Erdene Erdenebayar

NDC Ambassador Bat-Erdene Erdenebayar, is a passionate advocate for a sustainable future. His academic journey led him to Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, where he specialized in Chemical Engineering. Today, he proudly serves as a Carbon Accounting Specialist at URECA, a forward-thinking climate tech company. His career is driven by a genuine passion for addressing climate change and exploring the dynamic world of carbon markets. In his role at URECA, he’s committed to using his expertise to support green initiatives and sustainable projects through carbon finance.

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