Core analysis conducted in July 2021.

Overall NDC Equity Score



Emissions Reductions


The NDC makes a strong effort to create ambitious emission reduction goals, but lacks impactful policies that support GHG emissions reduction.


Gender Justice

Critically Deficient

The NDC has significant gaps in addressing gender mainstreaming, potentially not including at all.


Youth Inclusion


The NDC makes a strong effort to achieve meaningful youth inclusion, but lacks strategic contributions from youth and measures that supports’ youth vulnerabilities to the climate crisis in the country.


As a country that is both highly vulnerable to climate change impact and one of the largest greenhouse gases emitters across Africa, Nigeria is positioned for crucial leadership role in the road to 1.5oC. In its updated NDC, Nigeria reconfirmed its unconditional emissions reduction target of 20% below Business as Usual by 2030, which is considered ambitious aligned with its fair-share contribution to limit warming to 1.5°C. It also increased its conditional target to 47% emission reduction, contingent on international support, and included emission reduction in the waste sector for the first time. The updated NDC also covers the water resources sector, articulates other nature-based solutions not included in the previous NDC, and highlights efforts to review cleaner cooking and lighting. However, the recent approval of the Petroleum Industry Bill to reform the oil and gas sector and attract investment in the sector by the government, and plans to expand its domestic coal production, fall short of the country’s commitment to the Paris Agreement objectives.


On gender mainstreaming, the updated NDC aims to mainstream gender across all sector. In addition to approving the National Action Plan on Gender and Climate in 2020, the NDC acknowledges the disproportionate impact of current emissions-heavy practices (i.e. agriculture, access to potable water, fuelwood cooking) and climate impacts, while providing clear commitments to include women in monitoring forest-related actions, increase women’s access to clean cooking and sustainable agriculture resources, and strengthen their capacity to serve as leaders in climate mitigation and adaptation actions across all sectors. Further, following their gender-based review of national development, employment, access to resources, and participation in decision-making spaces finding clear lack access to and control of resources among women, the NDC committed to increasing budgets, reviewing policies, increasing capacity building for women, and creating indicators for gender-mainstreaming – including in decision-making spaces.


On youth inclusion, Nigeria’s NDC makes a strong effort to acknowledge the critical need of educating and empowering young people to act on the climate crisis. To ensure their inclusion in climate decision-making processes, the government launched a Youth Action Manual on Climate Change in partnership with the Nigerian Conservation Foundation. This initiative identified a series of opportunities for youth engagement in the NDC and lead to the creation of numerous NDC development workshops for young people across all regions. The NDC commits to strengthening climate knowledge, financial resources, monitoring opportunities, and decision-making spaces for young people.


  • Reconfirmed the country's unconditional economy-wide emission reduction target of 20% by 2030, increasing its conditional target to 47%.
  • Recognizes women, young people, and local communities that are disproportionately impacted by climate change
  • Acknowledges the use of Nature-Based Solutions (NBS) in contributing to mitigation efforts.
  • Consulted young people and women in developing the NDC.
  • Acknowledges the use of gender-disaggregated data and commits to increasing economy-wide gender mainstreaming indicators using the data results.
  • Commits to increasing the capacity of women and young people to engage in climate decision-making spaces and accessing resources to implement solutions.
  • Recognizes and outlines actions from the National Action Plan on Gender and Climate Action.


  • Fails to clearly include indicators, metrics, and outcomes for youth, women, indigenous knowledge, or civil society participation in the development of the NDC.

Key Recommendations

This analysis found a strong and commendable effort to mainstream gender and young people in all areas of Nigeria’s efforts to mitigate and adapt to climate change. Though it could benefit from sharing the specific gender-based data points, it acknowledges that women are significantly less likely to be able to access resources, climate knowledge, and political decision-making spaces. It uses these findings as entry points for increasing gender

mainstreaming. Further, the NDC could benefit from increasing measures and indicators specifically aimed at achieving the youth-centered priorities identified. The following are recommendations for the improvement of Nigeria’s next NDC:

For Gender Mainstreaming

  • Ensure investment in and implementation of a gender-transformative approach to disaster preparedness, response, and recovery activities.
  • Provide updates on the gender balance of NDC development and implementation processes.
  • Conduct specific gender-related consultations with women led organizations and community leaders.
  • Increase measures on agricultural extension efforts, agricultural inputs, subsidies, incentives, and training for women in climate-smart agriculture.
  • Share gender-related data that informed gender mainstreaming measures.

For Youth Inclusion

  • Create roundtables with young people from different careers and school levels to inform the NDC, indicating how perspectives shaped the NDC.
  • Establish a government initiative, supported by the Ministry of the Environment, where youth perspectivies can be captured and mainstream in the creation of environmental policies.
  • Create platforms that allows youth to access climate change educations as it relates to policy and practice, including incorporating climate change into schools and universities curriculum.

NDC Ambassador - Author

Mujidah Ajibola

NDC Ambassador Mujidah AJibola is a sustainability researcher and educator who teaches, inspires, leads, and supports students across the themes of environment, climate change, health & safety and sustainability to develop the required competencies for their success in an exciting manner. She also develops educational and training resources and programs for a wide range of topics. Mujidah is the Program Manager for the International Climate Policy and Advocacy Course at Care About Climate.


Olusegun Michael Ogundele

NDC Mentor Olusegun Michael Ogundele, MNES, is a research scientist with a broad interdisciplinary research capacity with a specific interest in biodiversity conservation, sustainable development studies, science-policy interfaces, and climate change and climate adaptation in Africa. His research experience is showcased through his publications in research journals in Africa, North America, and Europe. He has participated in and facilitated national and international conferences, building science-policy interfaces and policy programmes that enhance biodiversity conservation, climate change mitigation, and improved environmental governance in Nigeria. Two of the many initiatives he is proud to have established are the Nigerian IPBES National Platform and the Nigerian Youth Biodiversity Network- which is affiliated with the Global Youth Biodiversity Network of the United Nations Convention on Biological Diversity.

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Embracing Climate Equity to Shape an Equitable and Sustainable World

“2024 must be a year of ambitious emissions reduction and support for people facing the worsening effects of climate change. We need youth-led programs that grow understanding and accountability to build a livable future.”