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Peru

Perú

Core analysis conducted in August 2021.

Overall NDC Equity Score

Insufficient

+

Emissions Reductions

Insufficient

The NDC’s emissions reduction goal lacks ambition, however, the country provides pathways to lower emissions.

+

Gender Justice

Insufficient

The NDC made an effort to acknowledge the disproportionate impacts of climate on women and gender, but it insufficiently addresses long-term solutions or inclusion.

+

Youth Inclusion

Critically Deficient

The NDC has significant gaps in addressing youth inclusion, potentially not addressing young people at all.

Summary

Peru is one of the most vulnerable countries to climate change, due to its diversity of ecosystems of high global relevance such as those located in the Andes and the Amazon.

 

In 2014, Peru held the presidency of the Twentieth Conference of the Parties (COP20) of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), in that context the Peruvian government led decision 1/CP.20 ” “Lima Call for Climate Action”, in which it reiterates its invitation to all Parties to communicate an intended nationally determined contribution well in advance of COP 21  to facilitate clarity, transparency and understanding of those contributions ahead of the Paris Agreement (UNFCCC, 2015). Likewise, during COP20, it promoted the Lima Work Plan on Gender where it was decided to “foster gender balance, promote the consideration of gender issues in the development and application of climate policies, and establish a gender-sensitive climate policy in all relevant activities under the Convention” (UNFCCC, 2015).

 

On gender justice, Peru is one of the world’s strongest leaders. In addition to orchestrating the Lima Gender Action Plan, the National Commission on Climate Change (CNCC) and the High Level Commission on Climate Change (CANCC) are spaces for participation for citizens and the executive branch. Both spaces monitor the progress of the NDC and its relationship with women in Peru, through surveillance by the National Committee for Women and Climate Change (CONAMUC) and the participation of the Ministry of Women and Vulnerable Populations.

 

On youth inclusion, within the NDC itself, it’s unclear if youth perspectives were incorporated. However, young people were included on the National Climate Change Commission, indicating their voices were on equal footing as other representatives in designing the updated NDC.

 

On implementation, Peru has created numerous mechanisms to ensure the just, effective, and fast implementation of its NDC. The National Climate Change Law, which created the necessary framework to integrate mitigation and adaptation actions in national, regional and local planning and budget processes (NDC, 2021) in combination with funding from the German Ministry of the Environment has supported a strong implementation agenda.

Highlights

  • Gender approach is explicit in the NDC development process and the public policies and management instruments related to them.
  • The National Commission for Women and Climate Change (CONAMUC) and the Ministry of Women and Vulnerable Populations (MIMP) are key actors in gender equality and mainstreaming for the implementation and monitoring of the NDCs.
  • The NDC (2020) increases ambition from its previous INDC (2015) from 30 to 40% emissions reduction target for 2030, from the base year of 2015.

Lowlights

  • The impact of climate change on and inclusion of young people and indigenous peoples are not explicitly referenced.
  • Emissions reduction targets could be increased.
  • Working groups and commissions created a more inclusive design process, but civil society inclusion at-large is lacking.

Key Recommendations

Peru has set an incredibly high standard for a gender-inclusive NDC in both design and implementation practices. Additionally, Peru emphasizes the importance balance of mitigation and adaptation. However, Peru’s NDC lacks the same considerations for young people and indigenous peoples, as well as transparency on how they were equally included.

The siloed approach to inclusion creates doubt on the potential for transformational changes through the implementation of climate policies and reduction of inequalities; however, the strong inclusion of women sets a precedent for how Peru can successful raise ambition on youth and indigenous peoples inclusion. The following are key recommendations for the improvement of future NDCs:


For Gender Justice

  • Continue supporting the National Committee for Women and Climate Change (CONAMUC) and the participation of the Ministry of Women and Vulnerable Populations.
  • Increase opportunities to unify women's rights groups across the country to provide input to the NDC.
  • Increase transparency of decision-making process and actions of The National Commission for Women and Climate Change (CONAMUC).

For Youth Inclusion

  • Create a similar commission to the CONAMUC for the inclusion of young people in climate change decision-making spaces.
  • Increase opportunities for young people to work with the National Climate Change Commission representative to share more diverse perspectives.
  • Create a menu of options for youth engagement in designing the next NDC.
  • Incorporate youth vulnerability to the climate crisis and leadership potential into the next NDC.

NDC Ambassador - Author

Kelly Guevara

NDC Ambassador Kelly Guevara holds a Bachelor’s in Public Management from the Pontificia Universidad Católica del Perú (PUCP). Her career and climate activism for 7 years is focused on environmental governance, youth capacity building, and cooperation at the national and international level with multilateral organizations. Her professional experience involved AIESEC, the Ministry of Environment in Peru, the Inter-American Institute for Cooperation on Agriculture, United Nations Youth Envoy and UNICEF for the training of 360 young people towards the PreCOP Milan. Currently, she is the National Coordinator of LCOY Peru with outreach to 1,500 young people towards the COP26 in Glasgow. In these negotiations, she had participated with the Action for Climate Empowerment (ACE) team and as member of the Global Coordination Team of YOUNGO (Children and Youth Constituency to United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change).

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