Core analysis conducted in August, 2021.

Overall NDC Equity Score

Critically Deficient


Emissions Reductions


The NDC has significant gaps in planning ambitious emissions reduction goals, leaving much room for improvement to address climate action.


Gender Justice

Critically Deficient

The NDC has significant gaps in addressing gender mainstreaming.


Youth Inclusion

Critically Deficient

The NDC has significant gaps in addressing youth inclusion.


Thailand remains at risk from the adverse effects of climate change. According to the NDC, the country ranks thirteenth in vulnerability to the climate crisis over the next 30 years among countries worldwide. Thailand has committed to reducing total greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions 20% and up to 25% by 2030 with international support, and is complemented by numerous mitigation, energy, and adaptation plans.


On gender mainstreaming and youth inclusion, Thailand’s NDC is omitted as priorities. While only one reference to gender responsiveness is found in the adaptation principle of the latest’s NDC, no reference to youth participation is made. Ultimately, stronger political will and recognition of women and young people as agents of change are needed increase the greater degree of gender and youth integration in the NDC and associated climate policies.


  • An inter-ministerial working group was formed, and steering committees were appointed for the drafting of the NDC.
  • Lists several plans for mitigating emissions in the energy and industry sectors.
  • Includes both mitigation and adaptation goals.
  • Spotlights necessary effort to increase country-wide capacity for acting on the climate crisis, including through institutionalizing climate education and training for teachers.


  • No emphasis on the importance of youth or indication of their inclusion in the design process.
  • There is only a single reference to gender responsiveness in adaptation without specific gender disaggregated data or actions to address gender inequality and climate change.
  • Lacks a plan to strengthen gender and youth inclusion in the long-term.

Key Recommendations

This analysis found that there is no emphasis on the importance of youth and  only a single reference to gender responsiveness in Thailand’s NDC. Despite having existing mechanisms for gender mainstreaming and youth development, integrating gender perspectives, and supporting youth engagement in the climate policy has encountered a number of hurdles that are largely a result of political and cultural barriers. Consequently, the NDC

implementation process is at high risk of increasing inequalities. The following are key recommendations for the improvement of future NDCs and other national climate plans.

For Gender Mainstreaming

  • Develop a National Gender Action Plan for Climate Change to create an enabling environment to achieve gender equality and effectively support gender-sensitive climate policy instruments.
  • Integrate Gender Focal Points and CGEOs into the structure of Thailand’s energy and climate policies .
  • Make gender-disaggregated data available for monitoring and evaluation processes to better understand gender needs and inform policy development.
  • Implement gender budgeting across government agencies that are part of mitigation and adaptation action plans.
  • Use gender analyses and social impact assessments to shed light on the unequal distribution of resources and opportunities and thereby shape the national gender policy framework in NDC planning processes.

For Youth Inclusion

  • Provide platforms and channels as part of a participatory environment to enable youth involvement in the development of national policies on climate and the environmental.
  • Establish the National Youth Assembly for Climate Change as a main national mechanism to mobilize youth climate actions with sufficient budget allocation to support their activities.
  • Emphasize the climate crisis in school curriculums starting from early childhood education.
  • Support youth-led climate movements and activities in public and private schools across the country to encourage their role as positive agents to raise awareness, as well as initiate solutions and innovations .

NDC Ambassador - Author

Kanokphan Jongjarb

NDC Ambassador Kanokphan Jongjarb is a gender specialist with more than a decade of research experience working on gender-related projects. Her specific focus is on the gender interface with vulnerability and adaptation to climate change, social protection, and women’s economic empowerment. Kanokphan holds an M.Sc. in Gender and Development Studies from the Asian Institute of Technology (AIT) and an M.Sc. in the Geography of Environmental Risks and Human Security from the United Nations University (UNU-EHS). Currently, Kanokphan supports gender mainstreaming in agricultural development research projects in Africa with the Center for Development Research (ZEF) in Bonn, Germany.

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Embracing Climate Equity to Shape an Equitable and Sustainable World

“2024 must be a year of ambitious emissions reduction and support for people facing the worsening effects of climate change. We need youth-led programs that grow understanding and accountability to build a livable future.”