Core analysis conducted in August 2021. 

Overall NDC Equity Score



Emissions Reductions


The NDC is one of the most ambitious in the region, however, lacks an implementation plan to achieve net zero.


Gender Justice


The NDC makes strong commitments to gender mainstreaming but falls short on long-term women’s empowerment efforts.


Youth Inclusion


The NDC establishes youth inclusion in NDC development as a key priority, but could be improved by including clear indicators on youth empowerment and vulnerabilities to climate change.


Climate projections suggest that the Mediterranean region will become progressively drier as rainfall decreases and suffer from much higher temperatures compared to the rest of the world, making the already arid region even more prone to drought. As disproportionately vulnerable to climate crisis, Türkiye included adaptation and mitigation components in its 2023 NDC. The country commit to a 41% reduction in greenhouse gas emissions by 2030, peaking by 2038 and reaching net-zero by 2053, making it one of the most ambitious NDCs in the region. It also calls for increasing the capacity of alternative fuels such as solar, wind, hydroelectric, nuclear, and waste.


On gender mainstreaming, the 2023 NDC was more inclusive than its INDC. In it’s updated NDC, Türkiye highlighted that there was a gender balance among the 1,500 stakeholders consulted and in the established Climate Council, a commitment to carry out gender and climate studies, and a decision of the Council to include 5 of 217 measures on gender and women’s empowerment. However, the NDC falls short in outlining the specific gender-specific measures or how women will be empowered to engage in climate action across all sectors. Though the country’s Climate Action Plan and Adaptation Plan acknowledge women’s disproportionate vulnerability to climate change and incorporate gender across a few energy efficiency and agricultural related measures, this is only a small part of the actions needed to increase gender mainstreaming.


On youth inclusion, the NDC is an improvement from the INDC. Türkiye’s 2023 NDC acknowledges young peoples participation in the Climate Council and the creation of the Climate Envoys Movement intended to strengthen youth engagement in climate change mitigation and adaptation via leveraging the university system and inviting the Envoys to produce and present a statement to the Climate Council. In addition, the Envoys are supported in raising public awareness and involvement in climate action. Unlike the gender approach, it is not clear how many (if any) indicators on youth inclusion, vulnerability to climate change, or youth empowerment were included in the final 217 of the Council or other national climate plans.


  • Communicates intention to peak emissions by 2038 and reach net-zero by 2053.
  • Outlines an inclusive consultative process for NDC development, acknowledging the 217 indicators (5 on gender) created by the Climate Council.
  • References National Climate Action and Adaptation plans that are somewhat gender-responsive.
  • Spotlights the Climate Envoys program aimed at increasing youth inclusion and awareness raising efforts.


  • Lacks inclusion of the indicators created by civil society and how they will be implemented.
  • Does not include outcomes of the Climate Envoys movement and how their efforts are incorporated into Council decisions.
  • Excludes meaningful efforts to mainstream gender climate decision-making.
  • Does not acknowledge disproportionate impacts of climate change on women and young people.

Key Recommendations

Türkiye’s NDC failed to include meaningful inclusion of gender mainstreaming or youth inclusion. Though the 2023 Updated NDC is a positive step towards inclusivity and equity-based action, it restricts gender and youth inclusion to the “public participation” modalities of NDC development.

It is crucial that the next NDC focuses on gender equality throughout its commitments and emphasizes specific actions to center youth inclusion in implementation practices, not just in university systems. The following are key recommendations for the improvement of future NDCs and other national climate plans:

For Gender Mainstraming

  • Incorporate gender equality and women's rights perspectives when addressing emission reduction methods for different sectors.
  • The Climate Change Strategy Document must refer to gender equality or women's rights.
  • Financial and technical support should be provided to vulnerable groups, including disadvantaged women, on issues related to the climate crisis.
  • Gender-sensitive climate-related training programs should be created to ensure effective implementation of gender-responsive action.
  • Highlight gender disaggregated data in informing specific measures in the NDC.
  • Individuals outside the binary gender classification should be included.

For Youth Inclusion

  • Strengthen reporting and inclusion of young people in the NDC development and climate decision-making processes.
  • Fulfilling the nutritional, educational, and green skills needs of young generations should be included in the objectives of climate action plans.
  • Policies must be implemented to protect young people from poverty, security vulnerability, and social exclusion under the threat of climate change.

NDC Ambassador - Author

Duru Barbak

NDC Ambassador Duru Barbak is a climate activist and organizer with Fridays For Future Turkey. Duru is the co-founder of an Instagram blog called 1.5derece (1.5 degrees) which now has over 26k followers and produces content to raise awareness about the climate crisis. Duru is also the country coordinator of Turkey at COY16 (UN Climate Change Conference of Youth), a trained Climate Reality Leader, and makes presentations and speeches about the climate crisis and youth activism.

NDC Ambassador - Author

Hazal Aylin Kara

NDC Ambassador Hazal Aylin Kara (she/they) is a climate justice activist and feminist based in Istanbul. They are a part of the Fridays For Future movement, namely FFF Digital, Youth for Climate Turkey, and the FFF International Newsletter. She is passionate about pushing for an intersectional climate agenda, particularly in her home country of Turkey. Besides activism, they enjoy reading, learning about physics, and snuggling up with their cats.


NDC Translator

Firuze Alpaydin

NDC Mentor Firuze Alpaydin is a Sustainability Expert from Turkey and now working in the private sector. As of January 2021, she is the Climate Ambassador to Turkey, selected by Global Youth Climate Network, an initiative of the World Bank Group. She has also been appointed to be the Focal Point of Green Recovery & Sustainable Finance Task Force by the same initiative. Besides her native language Turkish, she speaks English and French fluently.

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Embracing Climate Equity to Shape an Equitable and Sustainable World

“2024 must be a year of ambitious emissions reduction and support for people facing the worsening effects of climate change. We need youth-led programs that grow understanding and accountability to build a livable future.”